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HISTORY  OF  THE

HOLY  LAND

 

By Thomas Simcox

 

1250 BC to 2000                                                                                                                     1920 till 1973

 

FROM THE PROMISE TO THE CAPTIVITY

2126 B.C.         God calls Abraham to the land of Canaan (Gen. 12:1-3).

1913 B.C.         God cuts an unconditional covenant with Abraham and tells him the boundaries of the land He has given to him and his seed forever (Gen. 15).

1800 B.C.         God confirms the Abrahamic Covenant with Isaac (Gen. 26:1-5).

1760 B.C.         God confirms the covenant with Jacob (Gen. 28:13-15).

1728 B.C.         Joseph is sold into slavery in Egypt (Gen. 37:36).

1706 B.C.         Jacob (now called Israel, Gen. 32:28) and family move to Egypt (Gen. 46:1-26).

1446 B.C.         The Exodus from Egypt (Ex. 14).

1406 B.C.         The Israelite Conquest of Canaan begins.

1375 B.C.         Period of the judges.

1050-930 B.C. The united kingdom (Saul, David, Solomon). In 1000 B.C. David conquers Jerusalem and makes it Israel’s capital.

930-722 B.C.    The divided kingdom (called Israel in the north, Judah in the south). Jerusalem is the capital of Judah.

722 B.C.           Assyrian conquers take the northern kingdom into captivity.

605-586 B.C.    Babylon conquers the southern kingdom and destroys Solomon’s Temple. The Babylonian Captivity begins.

 

FROM THE RETURN TO HEROD THE GREAT

539 B.C.          Babylon falls to Media-Persia (Dan. 5).
538 B.C.          Persian King Cyrus allows the Jewish people to return home (Ezra 1).
537 B.C.          Jewish people return to Jerusalem under Zerubbabel.
516 B.C.          Second Temple is completed.
458 B.C.          More Jewish people return under Ezra.
445 B.C.          Artaxerxes I sends Nehemiah to Jerusalem to rebuild its walls (Neh. 2).
430 B.C.          Malachi becomes the last prophetic voice, after which begin the 400 “silent” years.
333 B.C.          Alexander the Great conquers Persia, beginning the Greek, or Hellenistic, period.
323 B.C.          Alexander the Great dies and his kingdom is divided between his four generals.
167 B.C.          Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) defiles the Temple.

165 B.C.          Judas, or Judah, Maccabee leads a revolt against Antiochus, cleanses the Temple, and reestab­lishes Jewish independence under a Hasmonean dynasty.

63 B.C.            Roman General Pompey enters Jerusalem, ending Jewish independence; Julius Caesar assassinated.

37 B.C.             The Romans appoint Herod the Great “king of the Jews” and give him authority over Judea, Samaria, and Galilee.

 

FROM HEROD TO MUHAMMAD

20 B.C.             Herod begins remodeling the Temple.

6-5 B.C.            Jesus is born in Bethlehem.

4 B.C.               Herod dies; Caesar Augustus divides the territory: Herod Archelaus gets Judea, Herod Antipas gets the Galilee, and Herod Philip gets northeast of Galilee.

A.D. 26-36        Roman Procurator Pontius Pilate rules Judea.

A.D. 30             Messiah Jesus dies, arises, and ascends to heaven.

A.D. 66-73        First Jewish uprising. Romans destroy Jerusalem and the Temple (A.D. 70) and attack Masada, where 960 Jews commit suicide rather than surrender (A.D. 73).

A.D. 132-135    Second Jewish uprising. Emperor Hadrian attempts to rebuild Jerusalem as a pagan city called Aeolia Capitolina. Rabbi Akiva leads a rebellion and proclaims military leader Simon Bar Kochba messiah. Jewish people lose access to Jerusalem only and disperse throughout the land. Rome renames Judah, Samaria, and Galilee Palestina, later known as Palestine.

A.D. 200           Many dispersed Jews return.

A.D. 312-313    Emperor Constantine embraces a false form of Christianity.

A.D. 330           Constantine moves to Byzantium, renames it Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey), and keeps control over Palestine.

A.D. 570           Muhammad is born in Mecca (Saudi Arabia)

 

FROM MUHAMMAD TO THE OTTOMAN TURKS

622                   Muhammad moves to Medina (Saudi Arabia). His move is called the hijrah, Arabic for “emigrate.” The Muslim calendar begins with this date, which is 1 A.H.

610                   Muhammad claims the angel Gabriel showed him a tablet stating he was to become God’s messenger. From then until his death, Muhammad has “visions,” Thus begins the Muslim religion of Islam meaning “submission to Allah.”

630                   Arab Omayyads become the first Muslim presence in Jerusalem.

632                   Muhammad dies.

639-661            Arab Muslims rule. This 22-year-periodic the only time Arabs ever rule the land. Even then it was part of a greater empire.

661-1099          Muslims rule Palestine; however, they are not Arabs. The Abbassids came from Baghdad; the Fatimids from Cairo; the Seljuks from Turkey.
1099-1187        Catholic Crusaders under Pope Urban II conquer Jerusalem and massacre Jews and Muslims.
1187                 Saladin, a Muslim Kurd from Damascus, recap­tures Jerusalem and a large part of Palestine.
1244-1303        Asian Mongols depose Saladin’s dynasty. Muslim Mameluks and Mongols struggle for power. The Crusader presence ends in 1291.
1513-17            Muslim Ottoman Turks conquer Palestine.

 

FROM THE OTTOMAN TURKS TO THE BRITISH & NATIONHOOD

1517                 Muslim Ottoman Turks rule Palestine as part of their empire.
1840                 Turkish rule fully restored. English leaders begin to discuss the possibility of restoring the Jewish people to their homeland.
1882                 Jewish people make aliyah from Romania to Palestine.
1890-91            Large wave of Jewish people arrive from Russia.
1894-95            French Capt. Alfred Dreyfus is convicted of espionage on falsified evidence amid rampant anti-Semitism.
1896                 Theodore Herzl writes Der Judenstaat, “The Jewish State.”
1897                 First Zionist Congress meets in Basle, Switzerland, convened by Herzl. More than 200 participate from 17 countries, establishing the World Zionist

                         Organization “to create for the Jewish people a home in Eretz-Israel secured by law.” The Congress met every year from 1897 to 1901, then every

                         second year, and still meets today.

1901                 Zionist Congress establishes the Jewish National Fund (JNF) to raise funds to purchase land in Eretz Yisrael. The JNF is the largest land owner in

                         Israel (12.5 percent of all land) and purchased more than half of that amount before the reestablishment of the nation.

1904                 Second wave of immigration, mainly from Russia and Poland
1906                 First Hebrew high school is founded in Jaffa and art school founded in Jerusalem.
1908-14            Second Yemenite aliyah.
1909                 Tel Aviv, the first all-Jewish city, is founded in Palestine.
1910                 Kibbutz Degania is founded.
1914-18            World War 1.
1917                 British General Edmund Allenby conquers Palestine, east and west of the Jordan, ending the Ottoman reign. In November the British issue the Balfour

                         Declaration, supporting a “Jewish Homeland.”
1920                 League of Nations gives Britain a mandate over Pales­tine, with orders to implement the Balfour Declaration.

1917-1921        During the Revolution and the Civil Wars in Russia (1917-1921) factions connected to the White movement used the book entitled “The Protocols of the Elders of Zionto perpetrate hatred and violence against the Jews.  An estimated 70,000 to 250,000 civilian Jews were killed in atrocities during that Wars leaving more than 300,000 Jewish orphans. The idea that the Bolshevik movement was a Jewish conspiracy for world domination sparked worldwide interest in the Protocols. The book first appeared in print in 1903. Scholars generally agree that the Okhrana, the secret police of the Russian Empire, fabricated the infamous “Protocols” and passed off as Jewish plot to take over the world (but they may be of Freemason origin). Hitler used them to incite the German people and Islamic Arabs still used them in their Anti-Semitic propaganda.

1939-45            World War 2.

1948                 Israel reestablished as a nation on May 14, 1948.  President Harry S. Truman on the behalf of the United States formally recognized the new State of Israel just 11 minutes after its Declaration of the Establishment at 18:00 (Washington, D.C. time).

 

 

ERETZ YISRAEL’S MODERN HISTORY

 

Slide Shows

 

1250 BC to 2000

 

1920 till 1973

 

Anti-Semitism

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edited by John Henry

 

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